Pehea e hana ai i nā meaola kūpona mai ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai?

Ke hoʻonui nei ka ʻōpalaʻai i ka ulu ʻana o ka heluna kanaka o ka honua a ua ulu ka nui o nā kūlanakauhale. Hoʻolei ʻia nā miliona o nā meaʻai o ka meaʻai i loko o ka ʻōpala a puni ka honua i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Ma kahi o 30% o nā hua o ka honua, nā mea kanu, nā lūlū, nā ʻiʻo a me nā meaʻai pūʻolo e kiola ʻia i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Ua lilo ka ʻōpalaʻai i pilikia nui i ke kaiapuni i kēlā me kēia ʻāina. ʻO ka nui o nā ʻōpala o ka meaʻai ke kumu o ka haumia, nā mea e hoʻopōʻino i ka ea, ka wai, ka lepo a me nā meaola. Ma ka ʻaoʻao hoʻokahi, wāwahi nā ʻōpala ʻai i nā anaerobicly e hana i nā kinoea hoʻomehana honua e like me ka methane, carbon dioxide a me nā mea hoʻomake ʻino ʻē aʻe. Hoʻopuka ka ʻai neoneo i ka like o 3.3 biliona mau tona o nā kinoea hoʻomehana hale. ʻO ka ʻōpala meaʻai, ma ka ʻaoʻao ʻē, hoʻolei ʻia i loko o nā landfill e lawe ana i nā ʻāpana nui o ka ʻāina, e hana ana i ka ʻenekini landfill a me ka lepo e lana ana. Inā mālama ʻole ʻia ka leachate i ka wā o ka landfill, e kumu ia i ka haumia lua, ka haumia o ka lepo a me ka haumia o ka wai o ka honua.

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 Nui ka maikaʻi ʻole o ka incineration a me ka landfill, a ʻo ka hoʻohana hou ʻana i nā ʻōpala meaʻai e kōkua i ka pale ʻana i ke kaiapuni a hoʻonui i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā kumuwaiwai hou.

Pehea e hana ʻia ai ka ʻōpalaʻai i loko o ka meaola meaola.

ʻO nā huaʻai, nā lauʻai, nā huahana waiū, nā palaoa, ka berena, nā kope, nā hua manu, nā ʻiʻo a me nā nūpepa hiki ke hoʻohoka ʻia. ʻO ka ʻōpala meaʻai kahi mea composting kū hoʻokahi kahi kumu nui o nā meaola. Aia nā ʻōpalaʻai i nā mea kemika like ʻole, e like me ka starch, cellulose, protein lipids a me nā paʻakai inorganic, a me N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, K kekahi o nā mea kikoʻī. He biodegradable maikaʻi ka ʻōpalaʻai, a hiki i 85%. Loaʻa iā ia nā ʻano o nā meaolaola kiʻekiʻe, kiʻekiʻe o ka wai a me nā mea momona he nui, a he waiwai kiʻekiʻe hoʻopōʻaiapuni. Ma muli o ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai i ke ʻano o ka wai o ke kiʻekiʻe a me ka hoʻolālā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa o ke kino, he mea nui e kāwili i ka ʻōpala meaʻai hou me ka agena bulking, ka mea e hoʻopili i ka nui o ka wai a hoʻohui i ka hoʻolālā e hui.

Loaʻa nā pae kiʻekiʻe o ka meaʻai i nā meaola, me ka protein protein no 15% - 23%, momona no 17% - 24%, nā minelala no 3% - 5%, Ca no 54%, sodium chloride no 3% - 4%, etc.

Hana i nā ʻenehana a me nā pono e pili ana no ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka ʻōpala meaʻai i ka mea hoʻomomonaola.

Hoʻomaopopo maikaʻi ʻia ka haʻahaʻa o ka hoʻohana haʻahaʻa o nā kumuwaiwai landfill i kumu e hoʻohaumia ai i ke kaiapuni. I kēia manawa, ua hoʻokumu kekahi mau ʻāina kūkulu i kahi ʻōnaehana hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻōpala meaʻai maikaʻi. I Kelemania, no ka laʻana, mālama pinepine ʻia ka ʻōpala o nā meaʻai ma o ka composting a me ka fermentation anaerobic, e hana ana ma kahi o 5 miliona mau tona o nā meaola kūlohelohe mai nā ʻōpala o nā meaʻai i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Ma ka hōʻiliʻili ʻana i nā ʻōpala o ka meaʻai ma UK, hiki i ka 20 miliona mau tonnes o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana ke hiki ke hoʻoliʻiliʻi i kēlā me kēia makahiki. Hoʻohana ʻia ka composting ma kahi o 95% o nā kūlanakauhale ʻo US. Hiki i ka composting ke lawe mai i nā pono o ke kaiapuni, e like me ka hoʻēmi ʻana i ka wai o ka wai, a me nā pono waiwai he nui.

♦ Ka make wai

ʻO ka wai ka mea maʻa o ka ʻōpala meaʻai i helu ʻia no 70% -90%, ʻo ia ke kahua o ka hōʻino ʻana o ka ʻōpala meaʻai. No laila, ʻo ka make wai ka mea nui i ka hana o ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai i loko o ka mea kanu meaola.

ʻO ka ʻōpala mua i ka hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻōpala ka mea mua i ka mālama ʻana i ka ʻōpala meaʻai. Hoʻohui nui ʻia me Dewatering Systemā Pūnaehana Hanai ʻAna Pūnaewele hoʻokaʻawale ʻĀpana hoʻokaʻawale wai paʻa ʻaila-Wai Separatorà In-moku composter. Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia ke kahe kumu i nā kaʻina hana penei:

1. Pono e hoʻomaloʻo mua ʻia ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai ma mua o ka wai no ka mea nui ka wai i loko.

2. Ka hemo ʻana o nā ʻōpala inorganic mai nā ʻōpala o ka meaʻai, e like me nā metala, nā lāʻau, nā mea lula, nā pepa, nā lole, a pēlā aku, ma o ka hoʻokaʻawale ʻana.

3. Hoʻonohonoho ʻia nā meaʻai a hānai ʻia i loko o kahi mea hoʻokaʻawale ʻano solid-wai hoʻokaʻawale no ka haki ʻana, ka make ʻana o ka wai a me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi.

4. Hoʻomaloʻo a wili ʻia nā koena meaʻai i hoʻopili ʻia i nā kiʻekiʻe o ke ana e hoʻoneʻe i ka nui o nā wai a me nā microorganism pathogenic like ʻole. ʻO ka maikaʻi a me ka maloʻo o ka ʻōpala meaʻai e pono ai no ka hoʻokō ʻana i ka compost, a hiki ke hoʻouna ʻia i nā ʻōpala meaʻai i loko o ka composter in-vessel ma o ka conveyor belt.

5. ʻO ka wai i hemo ʻia mai ka ʻōpala meaʻai kahi hui o ka aila a me ka wai, i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e kahi mea hoʻokaʻawale wai-aila. Hoʻomaʻamaʻa hohonu ʻia ka aila i hoʻokaʻawale ʻia e loaʻa ai ka biodiesel a i ʻole ka aila ʻenehana.

ʻO nā mea kanu hoʻolei ʻōpala ʻai āpau nā keu o ke kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe, ka hana palekana, ke kumu kūʻai haʻahaʻa a me ka pōʻaiapili hana.

♦ Waiwai

Pahu Fermentation kahi ʻano pahu piha i hoʻopihapiha ʻia me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ʻenehana fermentation fermentation kiʻekiʻe wela, kahi e hoʻololi i ka ʻenehana composting composting kuʻuna. ʻO ke ana wela kiʻekiʻe a me nā kaʻina hana composting wikiwiki i loko o ka pahu e hana i ka compost kiʻekiʻe loa, hiki ke mālama ʻia me ka pololei a me ka paʻa.

Hoʻokomo ʻia ka composting i loko o ka moku, a ʻo ke kaohi wela ka mea nui i ka wā o ka composting. Loaʻa i kahi breakdown wikiwiki o nā meaola momona maʻalahi ma o ka mālama ʻana i nā kūlana wela kūpono no nā meaola. ʻO ka loaʻa ʻana o kahi pāmahana kiʻekiʻe no ka hana ʻole ʻana i nā meaola micro a me nā ʻanoʻano nāhelehele pono. Hoʻomaka ʻia ka fermentation e nā micro-organism i loko o ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai, wāwahi lākou i nā mea compost, e hoʻokuʻu ana i nā meaola, e hoʻonui ana i ka mahana i ka 60-70 ° C e pono ai e luku i nā pathogens a me nā ʻanoʻano nāhelehele. nā lula no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻōpala ʻokanika. ʻO ka composting i loko o ka moku ka manawa decomposition wikiwiki loa, hiki ke compost i ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai ma kahi o 4 mau lā. Ma hope o nā lā he 4-7 wale nō, hoʻokuʻu ʻia ka compost, ʻaʻohe mea ʻaʻala, hoʻomaʻemaʻe, a waiwai i nā meaola, a he waiwai kaulike kaulike.

ʻO kēia mea ʻaila ʻaʻohe hohono, aseptic organic fertilizer i hua ʻia e composter ʻaʻole wale nō e mālama i ka ʻāina hoʻopihapiha e pale ai i ke kaiapuni, akā e lawe pū kekahi i nā pono waiwai.

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 ♦ Granulation

Gnā mea kanu o ka ranular pāʻani i ke kuleana nui i ka hoʻolako ʻana i nā hoʻolālā waiwai ma ka ʻaoʻao o ka honua. ʻO ke kī i ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka mea hoʻohua mea hoʻohua mea koho e koho i ka mīkini granulate meaola momona pono. ʻO Granulation ke kaʻina hana o nā mea e hana ana i nā huna liʻiliʻi, hoʻonui ia i nā ʻenehana ʻenehana, pale i ka caking a hoʻonui i nā waiwai kahe, hiki i ka noi ʻana o nā liʻiliʻi, kōkua i ka hoʻouka ʻana, nā halihali, a me nā mea āpau āpau. ma o kā mākou meaola granulate mīkini granulation. Hiki i nā mea granulation ke piʻi i 100%, a hiki ke kiʻekiʻe i nā meaolaola i 100%.

No ka mahiʻai unahi nui, pono ka nui o ka huna huna i pono no ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka mākeke. Hiki i kā mākou mīkini ke hana i nā mea kanu meaola me ka nui like ʻole, e like me 0.5mm-1.3mm, 1.3mm-3mm, 2mm-5mm.Granulation o ka meaola meaola hāʻawi i kekahi o nā ala kūpono e kāwili ai i nā minelala e hana i kahi momona momona, e ʻae no ka mālama nui ʻana a me ka wahī ʻana, a hāʻawi pū hoʻi i ka maʻalahi o ka lawelawe ʻana a me ka noi. ʻOi aku ka maʻalahi o nā mea kanu granular e hoʻohana ai, ua kaʻawale lākou mai nā pilau maikaʻi ʻole, nā ʻanoʻano nāhelehele, a me nā pathogens, a ʻike nui ʻia kā lākou ʻano. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana me ka manure holoholona, ​​loaʻa iā lākou he 4.3 mau manawa ʻoi aʻe o ka naikokene (N), 4 mau manawa phosphorous (P2O5) a ʻoi aku i ka 8.2 mau manawa hou aku o ka potassium (K2O). Hoʻomaikaʻi ka momona momona i ka hiki o ka lepo ma o ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā pae humus, hoʻomaikaʻi ʻia nā ʻōkuhi hana lepo he nui: kino, kemika, waiwai ʻāina microbiological a me ka wai ona, ea, hoʻomehana wela, a me nā hua hua.

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♦ Maloʻo a anuanu.

Hoʻomaloʻo pahu Rotary & mīkini hoʻomaha hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i ka manawa o ka laina hana hoʻomomona meaola. Lawe ʻia ka ʻike wai o ka meaola meaola, hoʻemi ʻia ka mahana o nā granula, e loaʻa ana ke kumu o ka sterilization a me ka deodorization. Hiki i nā ʻanuʻu ʻelua ke hōʻemi i ka nalo ʻana o nā meaola i loko o nā granula a hoʻonui i ka ikaika o ka huna.

♦ Sieve a me ka pūʻolo.

ʻO ke kaʻina hana kānana e hoʻokaʻawale i kēlā mau mea momona granular i kūpono ʻole i hoʻopau ʻia e ka mīkini huli pahu Rotary. Hoʻouna ʻia nā mea momona granular pono ʻole e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia, ʻoiai e ʻākoʻako ʻia ka mea hoʻomomona mea kanu kūpono emīkini ʻūlū akomi.

Pōmaikaʻi i ka ʻai neoneo mea hoʻomomonaola

ʻO ka hoʻohuli ʻana i ka ʻōpala o ka meaʻai i loko o nā meaola meaola hiki ke hana i nā pono waiwai a me ke kaiapuni e hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ka olakino o ka lepo a kōkua i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi a me ka hoʻomaikaʻi i ka maikaʻi o ka wai. Hiki ke hana ʻia ke kinoea kūlohelohe a me nā biofuels hou mai nā ʻōpala o nā meaʻai i hana hou ʻia, a hiki ke kōkua i ka hōʻemi kinoea hoʻomehana honua nā hoʻokuʻu a me ka hilinaʻi ʻana i nā wahie fossil.

ʻO ka mea hoʻomomonaola ka mea momona maikaʻi loa no ka lepo. He kumu maikaʻi ia o nā mea kanu mea kanu, e like me ka nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium a me nā micronutrients, e pono ai no ka ulu ʻana o nā mea kanu. ʻAʻole hiki iā ia ke hōʻemi i kekahi mau mea kanu mea kanu a me nā maʻi, akā hoʻoliʻiliʻi hoʻi i ka pono no nā ʻano fungicides a me nā kemika.ʻO nā mea kanu kūpona kiʻekiʻe e hoʻohana ʻia i nā ʻano ākea, e like me ka mahiʻai, nā mahiʻai kūloko a me nā hōʻike pua i nā wahi ākea, kahi e lawe pono ai i nā pōmaikaʻi waiwai i nā mea hana.


Ka manawa Post: Jun-18-2021